There are four types of bearings most commonly used in land navigation:
- true bearings;
- grid bearings;
- magnetic bearings;
- compass bearings.
A true bearing is measured using the direction toward the geographic north pole as a reference point.
A grid bearing is measured using the direction northwards along the grid lines of the map projection as a reference point.
A magnetic bearing is measured in relation to magnetic north, using the direction toward the magnetic north pole (in northeastern Canada) as a reference point.
A compass bearing uses magnetic north as a reference point, adjusted to compensate for the magnetic variation or declination between magnetic and geographic north.